Amitav Ghosh made history in 1997 as the first Indian author to win the Arthur C. Clarke Award, for "The Calcutta Chromosome." But Ghosh is just one of many writers of must-read Indian science-fiction and fantasy novels. Thankfully, many of these books are becoming more available to American readers - let's hope this trend continues.
There are many traditions of science fiction in South Asia, in several languages. "Runaway Cyclone," by the brilliant polymath Jagadish Chandra Bose, first published in 1896 and anticipating the concept of the "butterfly effect," is one of the earliest examples of Indian science fiction. A fantastic introduction to the Tamil pulps is "The Blaft Anthology of Tamil Pulp Fiction," edited by Rakesh Khanna and translated by Pritham K. Chakravarthy. It really is a blast. A more recent anthology is "The Gollancz Book of South Asian Science Fiction," edited by Tarun K. Saint, which includes several new translations.